Printed Sources

 

Books with a single author

References from a printed book should be made up of the following elements:

Author's Surname, Initial(s)
Year of publication (in brackets)
Title (in italics)
Edition if not the first
Place of publication
Publisher

Examples:

Kelly, M. (1997). Imaging desire. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

If the book is edited rather than written by the person whose name is on the title page put (ed.) in brackets after their name e.g.

Thompson, J. (ed.) (1996). Towards a theory of the image. Maastrict: Jan van Eyck Akademie.

 

Books with multiple authors.

List all authors up to three, the same elements are required as for single author.

Examples:

Parker, R. and Pollock, G. (1987). Framing feminism: art and the Women's Movement 1970-85. London: Pandora.

Brown, J., Brignone, S. and Ward, A. (2001). The modern garden. London: Thames & Hudson.

Where four or more authors are responsible for a publication use the first author's name followed by et al.

Example:

Kotler, P. et al. (2002). Principles of marketing. 3rd ed. Harlow: Pearson Education.

 

Essay or contribution within a book.

References should consist of the following elements:

Contributing author's Surname, Initial(s)
Year of publication (in brackets)
Title of contribution. 

Followed by 'In'

Editors Suname, Initial(s) (ed.) or (eds.)
Title of book (in italics)
Place of publication
Publisher
Page number(s) of contribution

Example:

Ehrenreich, B., Hess, E. and Jacobs, G (1997). Beatlemania: a sexually defiant consumer culture? In: Gelder, K. and Thornton, S. (eds.) The subcultures reader. London: Routledge. pp. 523-536.

 

Book by an organisation.

References should consist of the following elements:

Organisation's name
Year of publication (in brackets)
Title (in italics)
Edition if not the first
Place of publication
Publisher

Example:

Association of Illustrators. (2000). Images 24: the best of British illustration. Crans-Pres-Celigny: Rotovision.

 

Works by Shakespeare with a named editor

List Shakespeare first followed by the editor/s after the title - for the in text citation use Shakespeare's name and the date.

Example:

Shakespeare, W. (1965). Measure for measure. Ed. Lever, J.W.  London: Methuen.

 

Works by an author with a named translator

List the author of the work before the translator - for the in text citation use the author's name and the date.

Example:

Ibsen, H. and McFarlene, J. (trans) (1981). Four major plays. London: Methuen.

 

Citing a line within a play

Author's Surname, Initial(s)
Year of publication (in brackets)
Title (in italics)
Edition if not the first
Place of publication
Publisher
Act, scene: line.

Example:

Shakespeare, W. (1980) Hamlet. Ed. Spencer, T.J.B. London: Penguin. 1.2: 177.

 

Journals & Newspapers

Journals

References should consist of the following elements:

Author's Surname(s), Initial(s)
Year off publication (in brackets)
Title of article
Title of journal (in italics)
Volume number
Part number or Month

Page number(s)

Examples:

Lowry, J. (2003). Slowing down: stillness, time and the digital image. Portfolio: the Catalogue of Contemporary Photography in Britain. No. 37. pp. 51-53.

Craik, J. (2003). The cultural politics of the uniform. Fashion Theory: the Journal of Dress, Body and Culture. Vol. 7 No. 2. pp. 127-147.

Vanderbilt, T. (2003). The new mobility. I.D.: The International Design Magazine. May. pp. 34-41.

 

Newspaper articles (printed)

References should consist of the following elements:

Author's Surname, Intial(s)
Year of publication (in brackets)
Title of article
Newspaper title (in italics)
Date and month
Page number(s)

Example:

Younge, G. (2003). Civil rights kitchen serves last supper. The Guardian. 4 August. p. 12.

 

Exhibition catalogues

References should consist of the following elements, where there is no author/artist use the name of the gallery:

Author/Artist's Family name, Initial(s)
Year of publication (in brackets)
Title (in italics)
Place of publication/gallery
Publisher/Gallery Name

Examples:

Gallaccio, A. (2003). Anya Gallaccio. Birmingham: Ikon Gallery.

 

Patents

References should consist of the following elements:

Originator
Name of applicant
Year of publication (in brackets)
Tile of patent (in italics)
Series designation which may include full date.

Example:

Philip Morris Inc. (1981). Optical perforating apparatus and system. European patent application 0021165 A1. 1981-01-07.

 

Dictionary entry


References should consist of the following elements:

Dictionary publisher
Year of publication (in brackets)
Full title of dictionary (in italics)
Place of publication
Publisher

Example:

Collins (2010). Collins English dictionary. Glasgow: Collins.

 

Theses or dissertations

References should consist of the following elements:

Author's Surname, Initial(s)
Year of publication
Title (in italics)
Designation (award)
Institution to which submitted

Example:

Favilla, A.L. (2004). Images of the virtual: rethinking photography in the age of biotechnologies. Thesis (PhD). University of London.

 

Published conference proceedings

Author’s  surname/s, initial/s
Year
Title.
In: Editor(s) (if applicable) Title of conference proceedings.
Place and date of conference.

Place of publication: Publisher, p. or pp.

Example:

Lieberman, O. and Altés Arlandis, A. (2013). Interventions, durations, effects: architecting the city and the world. In: Verbeke, J. and Pak, B. (eds.) Knowing (by) designing22-23 May 2013, Sint-Lucas School of Architecture, Brussels. Ghent/Brussels: LUCA, Sint-Lucas School of Architecture, Ghent/Brussels and KU Leuven, Faculty of Architecture. pp. 614-621.

 

Unpublished conference papers

Author’s surname/s, initial/s.
(Year of conference)
Title of paper.
Title of conference, date of conference.
Location of conference (including venue and city).
[no page numbers are needed]

Example:

Lieberman, O. (2002). Interdisciplinarity to transdisciplinarity: rethinking the boundary in architectural learning. Shared Visions Conference, 1-3 September 2002, ADC-LTSN, Centre for Education in the Built Environment and Palantine, Brighton.

 

Personal communications

Interviews

For face to face interviews and interviews conducted over the telephone or Skype, the following elements should be included:

Interviewee's Surname, Intial(s) 
Year (in brackets) 
Interviewee's job title / position (if appropriate)
Interview / Telephone conversation 
Date

Examples:

Interview:

Green, V. (1999). Organic Farming Policy Officer. Interview with author. 7 September.

Telephone conversation:

Longbridge, J. (2001). Opera South Public Relations Officer. Telephone conversation with author. 5 May.

Skype conversation:

 Fox, R. (2017). Skype conversation with author. 20 August.


Letters

Use the following to guidelines when referencing letters in hard copy:

Sender
Year (in brackets)
Sender's job title / organisation
Letter to author
Date

Example:

Beare, P. (2002). Deputy Head TAW Elementary School. Letter to author. 17 January.

 

Lecture notes

Include these elements when referring to lecture notes:

Lecturer's Surname, Initial(s)
Year
Course Title (in italics)
Institute name / location
Day, Month

Example:

Jones, A. (2009). BA Illustration: Interpretation of text. Arts University Bournemouth. 27 February.

 

Referencing images that are not reproduced in your work

Only use these rules if you are discussing an image that DOES NOT appear in your List of Figures i.e. the image is NOT reproduced in your piece of work.

If the diagram, photograph or illustration is the author’s own work and not a substantial work in its own right.

Examples of how it would appear in your text:

In their spider diagram Blaxter, Hughes and Tight (1996, p.34, Box 12) demonstrate how research interests and relationships can be graphically represented.

or

The photograph of a Nottingham shop window (Gregson and Crewe, 2003, p.69, Pl. 3.9) illustrates the way in which retro retailers …

In the reference list at the end of your piece of work list the sources in which the illustrations were published e.g. the above examples were in books and will therefore appear as:

Blaxter, L., Hughes, C. and Tight, M. (1996). How to research. Buckingham: Open University Press. p.12.

Gregson, G. and Crewe, L. (2003). Second-hand cultures. Oxford: Berg. p.69.

 

If the illustration is a work in its own right e.g. a reproduction of a painting, that you are referring to regardless of the text around it, you should cite it in its own right.

The name of the work, the artist/s, and year of the work’s creation should appear in the body of your text. The entry in your reference list should state the medium of the original and where it is held.

An example of how this would look in the text of your work:

Burne-Jones’s classical style can be witnessed in The Golden Stairs (Burne-Jones, 1880) his depiction of …

The entry in your reference list should follow this pattern:

Burne-Jones, E. (1880). The golden stairs. Oil on canvas. London: Tate Gallery. In: Wood, C. (1981). The Pre-Raphaelites. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p.121.

 

Referencing International Sources

If you reference a source written in a language other than English in your reference list then you can either write the title in the original language, or an English translation with the language acknowledged.

You will need to decide which you prefer and then use it consistently, for example:

Cabañas Bravo, M. (2008). Arte, poder y sociedad en la España de los siglos XV a XX. Madrid: Consejo superior de investigaciones cientificas.

OR

Cabañas Bravo, M. (2008). Art, power and society in Spain in the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries. (in Spanish). Madrid: Consejo superior de investigaciones cientificas.

If you reference a book written in a language with a non-roman alphabet, e.g. Arabic, Chinese, Russian, etc. you will need to use a standard transliteration scheme to write the title in your reference list.

 

Translating quotations

You may wish to include quotes from non-English sources in your written work. If you do this you can either translate the text or paraphrase the content in English.

When translating quotes you will need to write '(Own translation)' after the quote. For example:

In an interview with Tona Coromina the architect Michele de Lucchi explains the role of craft in design. 'Craft work is absolutely necessary to be able to create, because it is the experimental laboratory of technology. It allows you to make mistakes and learn from them, something that would be impossible or very costly in industry. But design is that: the beauty of mistakes, chance …' (own translation) (Coromina, 2009)

Coromina, T. (2009). Por amor a lo manual. [online]. Available from: http://www.elpais.com/articulo/Tendencias/amor/manual/elpeputec/20090530elpepitdc_1/Tes [Accessed 30 May 2009].